TOP SCIENTISTS IN INDIA
Aryabhata was an Indian mathematician, astronomer, extraordinary teacher and scholar. Born in Kerela in 476 CE, Aryabhata made some brilliant discoveries in his lifetime. He went on to live in Kusumpura (Patliputra, or modern day Patna) and it is speculated that he studied in Nalanda University, as there was an astronomical observatory. His contribution in the field of mathematics includes the discovery of zero, place value system approximation of (pi), sine in trigonometry, intermediate equations, etc. In the field of astronomy, he studied the motions of the solar system & described that the planets orbit elliptical rather than circular. He also explained solar and lunar eclipses and how they occur. He calculated sidereal rotation of earth and worked on heliocentric model (which states that earth and other planets revolve around the sun) way before Copernicus. He died in 550 CE.
Srinivasa Iyengar Ramanujan born on 22 December 1887, was an Indian mathematician who worked immensely on number theory, infinite series, continued fractions & mathematical analysis. He received his B.Sc. degree (later renamed PhD in March 1916 for his work on highly composite numbers Trinity College, Cambridge. Ramanujan’s home state of Tamil Nadu celebrates 22 December (Ramanujan’s birthday) as ‘State IT Day’. In 2011, on the 125th anniversary of his birth, the Indian Government declared that 22 December will be celebrated every year as National Mathematics Day.
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (15 October 1931 – 27 July 2015) was born in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu. He studied physics and aerospace engineering & was a scientist in Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). Kalam graduated from Madras Institute of Technology in 1960 & joined Aeronautical Development Establishment in DRDO as a scientist.
Kalam worked on various ballistic missile projects including PSLV, SLV-III, Agni, Prithvi, etc. Kalam, later on, went to serve as the 11th President of India in 2002. He died on 27 July 2015 in Shillong where he was invited to give a lecture.
Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai (12 August 1919 – 30 December 1971) was an Indian scientist and is known as the father of India’s Space Programme. His greatest achievement was the establishment of Indian Space Research Organisation(ISRO) for developing India in the field of space programmes and research. Homi Jehangir Bhabha supported Sarabhai in setting up the first rocket launching station in India. This centre was established at Thumba near Thiruvananthapuram on the coast of the Arabian Sea, primarily because of its proximity to the equator. Padma Bhushan in 1966 and Padma Vibhushan (posthumously) in 1972.
Homi Jehangir Bhabha (30 October 1909 – 24 January 1966) was an Indian nuclear physicist, founding director, and professor of physics at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. Bhabha was the founding director of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR, in 1945) and the Trombay Atomic Energy Establishment (in 1948, now named after him); both sites were the cornerstone of Indian development of nuclear weapons which Bhabha also supervised as its director. Bhabha gained international prominence after deriving a correct expression for the probability of scattering positrons by electrons, a process now known as Bhabha scattering. His major contribution included his work on Compton scattering, R-process. Bhabha died in a plane crash near Mont Blanc while heading to Vienna, Austria to attend a meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency‘s Scientific Advisory Committee.
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (7 November 1888 – 21 November 1970) was an Indian physicist. He carried out ground-breaking work in the field of light scattering, which earned him the 1930 Nobel Prize for Physics. He discovered that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the deflected light changes in wavelength. This phenomenon, subsequently known as Raman scattering, results from the Raman effect. In 1954, India honored him with its highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna.
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